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--[[
LUA MODULE
matrix v$(_VERSION) - matrix functions implemented with Lua tables
SYNOPSIS
local matrix = require 'matrix'
m1 = matrix{{8,4,1},{6,8,3}}
m2 = matrix{{-8,1,3},{5,2,1}}
assert(m1 + m2 == matrix{{0,5,4},{11,10,4}})
DESCRIPTION
With simple matrices this script is quite useful, though for more
exact calculations, one would probably use a program like Matlab instead.
Matrices of size 100x100 can still be handled very well.
The error for the determinant and the inverted matrix is around 10^-9
with a 100x100 matrix and an element range from -100 to 100.
Characteristics:
- functions called via matrix.<function> should be able to handle
any table matrix of structure t[i][j] = value
- can handle a type of complex matrix
- can handle symbolic matrices. (Symbolic matrices cannot be
used with complex matrices.)
- arithmetic functions do not change the matrix itself
but build and return a new matrix
- functions are intended to be light on checks
since one gets a Lua error on incorrect use anyways
- uses mainly Gauss-Jordan elimination
- for Lua tables optimised determinant calculation (fast)
but not invoking any checks for special types of matrices
- vectors can be set up via vec1 = matrix{{ 1,2,3 }}^'T' or matrix{1,2,3}
- vectors can be multiplied to a scalar via num = vec1^'T' * vec2
where num will be a matrix with the result in mtx[1][1],
or use num = vec1:scalar( vec2 ), where num is a number
API
matrix function list:
matrix.add
matrix.columns
matrix.concath
matrix.concatv
matrix.copy
matrix.cross
matrix.det
matrix.div
matrix.divnum
matrix.dogauss
matrix.elementstostring
matrix.getelement
matrix.gsub
matrix.invert
matrix.ipairs
matrix.latex
matrix.len
matrix.mul
matrix.mulnum
matrix:new
matrix.normf
matrix.normmax
matrix.pow
matrix.print
matrix.random
matrix.replace
matrix.root
matrix.rotl
matrix.rotr
matrix.round
matrix.rows
matrix.scalar
matrix.setelement
matrix.size
matrix.solve
matrix.sqrt
matrix.sub
matrix.subm
matrix.tostring
matrix.transpose
matrix.type
See code and test_matrix.lua.
DEPENDENCIES
None (other than Lua 5.1 or 5.2). May be used with complex.lua.
HOME PAGE
http://luamatrix.luaforge.net
http://lua-users.org/wiki/LuaMatrix
DOWNLOAD/INSTALL
./util.mk
cd tmp/*
luarocks make
LICENSE
Licensed under the same terms as Lua itself.
Developers:
Michael Lutz (chillcode) - original author
David Manura http://lua-users.org/wiki/DavidManura
--]]
--////////////
--// matrix //
--////////////
local matrix = {_TYPE='module', _NAME='matrix', _VERSION='0.2.11.20120416'}
-- access to the metatable we set at the end of the file
local matrix_meta = {}
--/////////////////////////////
--// Get 'new' matrix object //
--/////////////////////////////
--// matrix:new ( rows [, columns [, value]] )
-- if rows is a table then sets rows as matrix
-- if rows is a table of structure {1,2,3} then it sets it as a vector matrix
-- if rows and columns are given and are numbers, returns a matrix with size rowsxcolumns
-- if num is given then returns a matrix with given size and all values set to num
-- if rows is given as number and columns is "I", will return an identity matrix of size rowsxrows
function matrix:new( rows, columns, value )
-- check for given matrix
if type( rows ) == "table" then
-- check for vector
if type(rows[1]) ~= "table" then -- expect a vector
return setmetatable( {{rows[1]},{rows[2]},{rows[3]}},matrix_meta )
end
return setmetatable( rows,matrix_meta )
end
-- get matrix table
local mtx = {}
local value = value or 0
-- build identity matrix of given rows
if columns == "I" then
for i = 1,rows do
mtx[i] = {}
for j = 1,rows do
if i == j then
mtx[i][j] = 1
else
mtx[i][j] = 0
end
end
end
-- build new matrix
else
for i = 1,rows do
mtx[i] = {}
for j = 1,columns do
mtx[i][j] = value
end
end
end
-- return matrix with shared metatable
return setmetatable( mtx,matrix_meta )
end
--// matrix ( rows [, comlumns [, value]] )
-- set __call behaviour of matrix
-- for matrix( ... ) as matrix.new( ... )
setmetatable( matrix, { __call = function( ... ) return matrix.new( ... ) end } )
-- functions are designed to be light on checks
-- so we get Lua errors instead on wrong input
-- matrix.<functions> should handle any table of structure t[i][j] = value
-- we always return a matrix with scripts metatable
-- cause its faster than setmetatable( mtx, getmetatable( input matrix ) )
--///////////////////////////////
--// matrix 'matrix' functions //
--///////////////////////////////
--// for real, complex and symbolic matrices //--
-- note: real and complex matrices may be added, subtracted, etc.
-- real and symbolic matrices may also be added, subtracted, etc.
-- but one should avoid using symbolic matrices with complex ones
-- since it is not clear which metatable then is used
--// matrix.add ( m1, m2 )
-- Add two matrices; m2 may be of bigger size than m1
function matrix.add( m1, m2 )
local mtx = {}
for i = 1,#m1 do
local m3i = {}
mtx[i] = m3i
for j = 1,#m1[1] do
m3i[j] = m1[i][j] + m2[i][j]
end
end
return setmetatable( mtx, matrix_meta )
end
--// matrix.sub ( m1 ,m2 )
-- Subtract two matrices; m2 may be of bigger size than m1
function matrix.sub( m1, m2 )
local mtx = {}
for i = 1,#m1 do
local m3i = {}
mtx[i] = m3i
for j = 1,#m1[1] do
m3i[j] = m1[i][j] - m2[i][j]
end
end
return setmetatable( mtx, matrix_meta )
end
--// matrix.mul ( m1, m2 )
-- Multiply two matrices; m1 columns must be equal to m2 rows
-- e.g. #m1[1] == #m2
function matrix.mul( m1, m2 )
-- multiply rows with columns
local mtx = {}
for i = 1,#m1 do
mtx[i] = {}
for j = 1,#m2[1] do
local num = m1[i][1] * m2[1][j]
for n = 2,#m1[1] do
num = num + m1[i][n] * m2[n][j]
end
mtx[i][j] = num
end
end
return setmetatable( mtx, matrix_meta )
end
--// matrix.div ( m1, m2 )
-- Divide two matrices; m1 columns must be equal to m2 rows
-- m2 must be square, to be inverted,
-- if that fails returns the rank of m2 as second argument
-- e.g. #m1[1] == #m2; #m2 == #m2[1]
function matrix.div( m1, m2 )
local rank; m2,rank = matrix.invert( m2 )
if not m2 then return m2, rank end -- singular
return matrix.mul( m1, m2 )
end
--// matrix.mulnum ( m1, num )
-- Multiply matrix with a number
-- num may be of type 'number' or 'complex number'
-- strings get converted to complex number, if that fails then to symbol
function matrix.mulnum( m1, num )
local mtx = {}
-- multiply elements with number
for i = 1,#m1 do
mtx[i] = {}
for j = 1,#m1[1] do
mtx[i][j] = m1[i][j] * num
end
end
return setmetatable( mtx, matrix_meta )
end
--// matrix.divnum ( m1, num )
-- Divide matrix by a number
-- num may be of type 'number' or 'complex number'
-- strings get converted to complex number, if that fails then to symbol
function matrix.divnum( m1, num )
local mtx = {}
-- divide elements by number
for i = 1,#m1 do
local mtxi = {}
mtx[i] = mtxi
for j = 1,#m1[1] do
mtxi[j] = m1[i][j] / num
end
end
return setmetatable( mtx, matrix_meta )
end
--// for real and complex matrices only //--
--// matrix.pow ( m1, num )
-- Power of matrix; mtx^(num)
-- num is an integer and may be negative
-- m1 has to be square
-- if num is negative and inverting m1 fails
-- returns the rank of matrix m1 as second argument
function matrix.pow( m1, num )
assert(num == math.floor(num), "exponent not an integer")
if num == 0 then
return matrix:new( #m1,"I" )
end
if num < 0 then
local rank; m1,rank = matrix.invert( m1 )
if not m1 then return m1, rank end -- singular
num = -num
end
local mtx = matrix.copy( m1 )
for i = 2,num do
mtx = matrix.mul( mtx,m1 )
end
return mtx
end
local function number_norm2(x)
return x * x
end
--// matrix.det ( m1 )
-- Calculate the determinant of a matrix
-- m1 needs to be square
-- Can calc the det for symbolic matrices up to 3x3 too
-- The function to calculate matrices bigger 3x3
-- is quite fast and for matrices of medium size ~(100x100)
-- and average values quite accurate
-- here we try to get the nearest element to |1|, (smallest pivot element)
-- os that usually we have |mtx[i][j]/subdet| > 1 or mtx[i][j];
-- with complex matrices we use the complex.abs function to check if it is bigger or smaller
function matrix.det( m1 )
-- check if matrix is quadratic
assert(#m1 == #m1[1], "matrix not square")
local size = #m1
if size == 1 then
return m1[1][1]
end
if size == 2 then
return m1[1][1]*m1[2][2] - m1[2][1]*m1[1][2]
end
if size == 3 then
return ( m1[1][1]*m1[2][2]*m1[3][3] + m1[1][2]*m1[2][3]*m1[3][1] + m1[1][3]*m1[2][1]*m1[3][2]
- m1[1][3]*m1[2][2]*m1[3][1] - m1[1][1]*m1[2][3]*m1[3][2] - m1[1][2]*m1[2][1]*m1[3][3] )
end
--// no symbolic matrix supported below here
local e = m1[1][1]
local zero = type(e) == "table" and e.zero or 0
local norm2 = type(e) == "table" and e.norm2 or number_norm2
--// matrix is bigger than 3x3
-- get determinant
-- using Gauss elimination and Laplace
-- start eliminating from below better for removals
-- get copy of matrix, set initial determinant
local mtx = matrix.copy( m1 )
local det = 1
-- get det up to the last element
for j = 1,#mtx[1] do
-- get smallest element so that |factor| > 1
-- and set it as last element
local rows = #mtx
local subdet,xrow
for i = 1,rows do
-- get element
local e = mtx[i][j]
-- if no subdet has been found
if not subdet then
-- check if element it is not zero
if e ~= zero then
-- use element as new subdet
subdet,xrow = e,i
end
-- check for elements nearest to 1 or -1
elseif e ~= zero and math.abs(norm2(e)-1) < math.abs(norm2(subdet)-1) then
subdet,xrow = e,i
end
end
-- only cary on if subdet is found
if subdet then
-- check if xrow is the last row,
-- else switch lines and multiply det by -1
if xrow ~= rows then
mtx[rows],mtx[xrow] = mtx[xrow],mtx[rows]
det = -det
end
-- traverse all fields setting element to zero
-- we don't set to zero cause we don't use that column anymore then anyways
for i = 1,rows-1 do
-- factor is the dividor of the first element
-- if element is not already zero
if mtx[i][j] ~= zero then
local factor = mtx[i][j]/subdet
-- update all remaining fields of the matrix, with value from xrow
for n = j+1,#mtx[1] do
mtx[i][n] = mtx[i][n] - factor * mtx[rows][n]
end
end
end
-- update determinant and remove row
if math.fmod( rows,2 ) == 0 then
det = -det
end
det = det * subdet
table.remove( mtx )
else
-- break here table det is 0
return det * 0
end
end
-- det ready to return
return det
end
--// matrix.dogauss ( mtx )
-- Gauss elimination, Gauss-Jordan Method
-- this function changes the matrix itself
-- returns on success: true,
-- returns on failure: false,'rank of matrix'
-- locals
-- checking here for the element nearest but not equal to zero (smallest pivot element).
-- This way the `factor` in `dogauss` will be >= 1, which
-- can give better results.
local pivotOk = function( mtx,i,j,norm2 )
-- find min value
local iMin
local normMin = math.huge
for _i = i,#mtx do
local e = mtx[_i][j]
local norm = math.abs(norm2(e))
if norm > 0 and norm < normMin then
iMin = _i
normMin = norm
end
end
if iMin then
-- switch lines if not in position.
if iMin ~= i then
mtx[i],mtx[iMin] = mtx[iMin],mtx[i]
end
return true
end
return false
end
local function copy(x)
return type(x) == "table" and x.copy(x) or x
end
-- note: in --// ... //-- we have a way that does no divison,
-- however with big number and matrices we get problems since we do no reducing
function matrix.dogauss( mtx )
local e = mtx[1][1]
local zero = type(e) == "table" and e.zero or 0
local one = type(e) == "table" and e.one or 1
local norm2 = type(e) == "table" and e.norm2 or number_norm2
local rows,columns = #mtx,#mtx[1]
-- stairs left -> right
for j = 1,rows do
-- check if element can be setted to one
if pivotOk( mtx,j,j,norm2 ) then
-- start parsing rows
for i = j+1,rows do
-- check if element is not already zero
if mtx[i][j] ~= zero then
-- we may add x*otherline row, to set element to zero
-- tozero - x*mtx[j][j] = 0; x = tozero/mtx[j][j]
local factor = mtx[i][j]/mtx[j][j]
--// this should not be used although it does no division,
-- yet with big matrices (since we do no reducing and other things)
-- we get too big numbers
--local factor1,factor2 = mtx[i][j],mtx[j][j] //--
mtx[i][j] = copy(zero)
for _j = j+1,columns do
--// mtx[i][_j] = mtx[i][_j] * factor2 - factor1 * mtx[j][_j] //--
mtx[i][_j] = mtx[i][_j] - factor * mtx[j][_j]
end
end
end
else
-- return false and the rank of the matrix
return false,j-1
end
end
-- stairs right <- left
for j = rows,1,-1 do
-- set element to one
-- do division here
local div = mtx[j][j]
for _j = j+1,columns do
mtx[j][_j] = mtx[j][_j] / div
end
-- start parsing rows
for i = j-1,1,-1 do
-- check if element is not already zero
if mtx[i][j] ~= zero then
local factor = mtx[i][j]
for _j = j+1,columns do
mtx[i][_j] = mtx[i][_j] - factor * mtx[j][_j]
end
mtx[i][j] = copy(zero)
end
end
mtx[j][j] = copy(one)
end
return true
end
--// matrix.invert ( m1 )
-- Get the inverted matrix or m1
-- matrix must be square and not singular
-- on success: returns inverted matrix
-- on failure: returns nil,'rank of matrix'
function matrix.invert( m1 )
assert(#m1 == #m1[1], "matrix not square")
local mtx = matrix.copy( m1 )
local ident = setmetatable( {},matrix_meta )
local e = m1[1][1]
local zero = type(e) == "table" and e.zero or 0
local one = type(e) == "table" and e.one or 1
for i = 1,#m1 do
local identi = {}
ident[i] = identi
for j = 1,#m1 do
identi[j] = copy((i == j) and one or zero)
end
end
mtx = matrix.concath( mtx,ident )
local done,rank = matrix.dogauss( mtx )
if done then
return matrix.subm( mtx, 1,(#mtx[1]/2)+1,#mtx,#mtx[1] )
else
return nil,rank
end
end
--// matrix.sqrt ( m1 [,iters] )
-- calculate the square root of a matrix using "Denman Beavers square root iteration"
-- condition: matrix rows == matrix columns; must have a invers matrix and a square root
-- if called without additional arguments, the function finds the first nearest square root to
-- input matrix, there are others but the error between them is very small
-- if called with agument iters, the function will return the matrix by number of iterations
-- the script returns:
-- as first argument, matrix^.5
-- as second argument, matrix^-.5
-- as third argument, the average error between (matrix^.5)^2-inputmatrix
-- you have to determin for yourself if the result is sufficent enough for you
-- local average error
local function get_abs_avg( m1, m2 )
local dist = 0
local e = m1[1][1]
local abs = type(e) == "table" and e.abs or math.abs
for i=1,#m1 do
for j=1,#m1[1] do
dist = dist + abs(m1[i][j]-m2[i][j])
end
end
-- norm by numbers of entries
return dist/(#m1*2)
end
-- square root function
function matrix.sqrt( m1, iters )
assert(#m1 == #m1[1], "matrix not square")
local iters = iters or math.huge
local y = matrix.copy( m1 )
local z = matrix(#y, 'I')
local dist = math.huge
-- iterate, and get the average error
for n=1,iters do
local lasty,lastz = y,z
-- calc square root
-- y, z = (1/2)*(y + z^-1), (1/2)*(z + y^-1)
y, z = matrix.divnum((matrix.add(y,matrix.invert(z))),2),
matrix.divnum((matrix.add(z,matrix.invert(y))),2)
local dist1 = get_abs_avg(y,lasty)
if iters == math.huge then
if dist1 >= dist then
return lasty,lastz,get_abs_avg(matrix.mul(lasty,lasty),m1)
end
end
dist = dist1
end
return y,z,get_abs_avg(matrix.mul(y,y),m1)
end
--// matrix.root ( m1, root [,iters] )
-- calculate any root of a matrix
-- source: http://www.dm.unipi.it/~cortona04/slides/bruno.pdf
-- m1 and root have to be given;(m1 = matrix, root = number)
-- conditions same as matrix.sqrt
-- returns same values as matrix.sqrt
function matrix.root( m1, root, iters )
assert(#m1 == #m1[1], "matrix not square")
local iters = iters or math.huge
local mx = matrix.copy( m1 )
local my = matrix.mul(mx:invert(),mx:pow(root-1))
local dist = math.huge
-- iterate, and get the average error
for n=1,iters do
local lastx,lasty = mx,my
-- calc root of matrix
--mx,my = ((p-1)*mx + my^-1)/p,
-- ((((p-1)*my + mx^-1)/p)*my^-1)^(p-2) *
-- ((p-1)*my + mx^-1)/p
mx,my = mx:mulnum(root-1):add(my:invert()):divnum(root),
my:mulnum(root-1):add(mx:invert()):divnum(root)
:mul(my:invert():pow(root-2)):mul(my:mulnum(root-1)
:add(mx:invert())):divnum(root)
local dist1 = get_abs_avg(mx,lastx)
if iters == math.huge then
if dist1 >= dist then
return lastx,lasty,get_abs_avg(matrix.pow(lastx,root),m1)
end
end
dist = dist1
end
return mx,my,get_abs_avg(matrix.pow(mx,root),m1)
end
--// Norm functions //--
--// matrix.normf ( mtx )
-- calculates the Frobenius norm of the matrix.
-- ||mtx||_F = sqrt(SUM_{i,j} |a_{i,j}|^2)
-- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frobenius_norm#Frobenius_norm
function matrix.normf(mtx)
local mtype = matrix.type(mtx)
local result = 0
for i = 1,#mtx do
for j = 1,#mtx[1] do
local e = mtx[i][j]
if mtype ~= "number" then e = e:abs() end
result = result + e^2
end
end
local sqrt = (type(result) == "number") and math.sqrt or result.sqrt
return sqrt(result)
end
--// matrix.normmax ( mtx )
-- calculates the max norm of the matrix.
-- ||mtx||_{max} = max{|a_{i,j}|}
-- Does not work with symbolic matrices
-- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frobenius_norm#Max_norm
function matrix.normmax(mtx)
local abs = (matrix.type(mtx) == "number") and math.abs or mtx[1][1].abs
local result = 0
for i = 1,#mtx do
for j = 1,#mtx[1] do
local e = abs(mtx[i][j])
if e > result then result = e end
end
end
return result
end
--// only for number and complex type //--
-- Functions changing the matrix itself
--// matrix.round ( mtx [, idp] )
-- perform round on elements
local numround = function( num,mult )
return math.floor( num * mult + 0.5 ) / mult
end
local tround = function( t,mult )
for i,v in ipairs(t) do
t[i] = math.floor( v * mult + 0.5 ) / mult
end
return t
end
function matrix.round( mtx, idp )
local mult = 10^( idp or 0 )
local fround = matrix.type( mtx ) == "number" and numround or tround
for i = 1,#mtx do
for j = 1,#mtx[1] do
mtx[i][j] = fround(mtx[i][j],mult)
end
end
return mtx
end
--// matrix.random( mtx [,start] [, stop] [, idip] )
-- fillmatrix with random values
local numfill = function( _,start,stop,idp )
return math.random( start,stop ) / idp
end
local tfill = function( t,start,stop,idp )
for i in ipairs(t) do
t[i] = math.random( start,stop ) / idp
end
return t
end
function matrix.random( mtx,start,stop,idp )
local start,stop,idp = start or -10,stop or 10,idp or 1
local ffill = matrix.type( mtx ) == "number" and numfill or tfill
for i = 1,#mtx do
for j = 1,#mtx[1] do
mtx[i][j] = ffill( mtx[i][j], start, stop, idp )
end
end
return mtx
end
--//////////////////////////////
--// Object Utility Functions //
--//////////////////////////////
--// for all types and matrices //--
--// matrix.type ( mtx )
-- get type of matrix, normal/complex/symbol or tensor
function matrix.type( mtx )
local e = mtx[1][1]
if type(e) == "table" then
if e.type then
return e:type()
end
return "tensor"
end
return "number"
end
-- local functions to copy matrix values
local num_copy = function( num )
return num
end
local t_copy = function( t )
local newt = setmetatable( {}, getmetatable( t ) )
for i,v in ipairs( t ) do
newt[i] = v
end
return newt
end
--// matrix.copy ( m1 )
-- Copy a matrix
-- simple copy, one can write other functions oneself
function matrix.copy( m1 )
local docopy = matrix.type( m1 ) == "number" and num_copy or t_copy
local mtx = {}
for i = 1,#m1[1] do
mtx[i] = {}
for j = 1,#m1 do
mtx[i][j] = docopy( m1[i][j] )
end
end
return setmetatable( mtx, matrix_meta )
end
--// matrix.transpose ( m1 )
-- Transpose a matrix
-- switch rows and columns
function matrix.transpose( m1 )
local docopy = matrix.type( m1 ) == "number" and num_copy or t_copy
local mtx = {}
for i = 1,#m1[1] do
mtx[i] = {}
for j = 1,#m1 do
mtx[i][j] = docopy( m1[j][i] )
end
end
return setmetatable( mtx, matrix_meta )
end
--// matrix.subm ( m1, i1, j1, i2, j2 )
-- Submatrix out of a matrix
-- input: i1,j1,i2,j2
-- i1,j1 are the start element
-- i2,j2 are the end element
-- condition: i1,j1,i2,j2 are elements of the matrix
function matrix.subm( m1,i1,j1,i2,j2 )
local docopy = matrix.type( m1 ) == "number" and num_copy or t_copy
local mtx = {}
for i = i1,i2 do
local _i = i-i1+1
mtx[_i] = {}
for j = j1,j2 do
local _j = j-j1+1
mtx[_i][_j] = docopy( m1[i][j] )
end
end
return setmetatable( mtx, matrix_meta )
end
--// matrix.concath( m1, m2 )
-- Concatenate two matrices, horizontal
-- will return m1m2; rows have to be the same
-- e.g.: #m1 == #m2
function matrix.concath( m1,m2 )
assert(#m1 == #m2, "matrix size mismatch")
local docopy = matrix.type( m1 ) == "number" and num_copy or t_copy
local mtx = {}
local offset = #m1[1]
for i = 1,#m1 do
mtx[i] = {}
for j = 1,offset do
mtx[i][j] = docopy( m1[i][j] )
end
for j = 1,#m2[1] do
mtx[i][j+offset] = docopy( m2[i][j] )
end
end
return setmetatable( mtx, matrix_meta )
end
--// matrix.concatv ( m1, m2 )
-- Concatenate two matrices, vertical
-- will return m1
-- m2
-- columns have to be the same; e.g.: #m1[1] == #m2[1]
function matrix.concatv( m1,m2 )
assert(#m1[1] == #m2[1], "matrix size mismatch")
local docopy = matrix.type( m1 ) == "number" and num_copy or t_copy
local mtx = {}
for i = 1,#m1 do
mtx[i] = {}
for j = 1,#m1[1] do
mtx[i][j] = docopy( m1[i][j] )
end
end
local offset = #mtx
for i = 1,#m2 do
local _i = i + offset
mtx[_i] = {}
for j = 1,#m2[1] do
mtx[_i][j] = docopy( m2[i][j] )
end
end
return setmetatable( mtx, matrix_meta )
end
--// matrix.rotl ( m1 )
-- Rotate Left, 90 degrees
function matrix.rotl( m1 )
local mtx = matrix:new( #m1[1],#m1 )
local docopy = matrix.type( m1 ) == "number" and num_copy or t_copy
for i = 1,#m1 do
for j = 1,#m1[1] do
mtx[#m1[1]-j+1][i] = docopy( m1[i][j] )
end
end
return mtx
end
--// matrix.rotr ( m1 )
-- Rotate Right, 90 degrees
function matrix.rotr( m1 )
local mtx = matrix:new( #m1[1],#m1 )
local docopy = matrix.type( m1 ) == "number" and num_copy or t_copy
for i = 1,#m1 do
for j = 1,#m1[1] do
mtx[j][#m1-i+1] = docopy( m1[i][j] )
end
end
return mtx
end
local function tensor_tostring( t,fstr )
if not fstr then return "["..table.concat(t,",").."]" end
local tval = {}
for i,v in ipairs( t ) do
tval[i] = string.format( fstr,v )
end
return "["..table.concat(tval,",").."]"
end
local function number_tostring( e,fstr )
return fstr and string.format( fstr,e ) or e
end
--// matrix.tostring ( mtx, formatstr )
-- tostring function
function matrix.tostring( mtx, formatstr )
local ts = {}
local mtype = matrix.type( mtx )
local e = mtx[1][1]
local tostring = mtype == "tensor" and tensor_tostring or
type(e) == "table" and e.tostring or number_tostring
for i = 1,#mtx do
local tstr = {}
for j = 1,#mtx[1] do
tstr[j] = tostring(mtx[i][j],formatstr)
end
ts[i] = table.concat(tstr, "\t")
end
return table.concat(ts, "\n")
end
--// matrix.print ( mtx [, formatstr] )
-- print out the matrix, just calls tostring
function matrix.print( ... )
print( matrix.tostring( ... ) )
end
--// matrix.latex ( mtx [, align] )
-- LaTeX output
function matrix.latex( mtx, align )
-- align : option to align the elements
-- c = center; l = left; r = right
-- \usepackage{dcolumn}; D{.}{,}{-1}; aligns number by . replaces it with ,
local align = align or "c"
local str = "$\\left( \\begin{array}{"..string.rep( align, #mtx[1] ).."}\n"
local getstr = matrix.type( mtx ) == "tensor" and tensor_tostring or number_tostring
for i = 1,#mtx do
str = str.."\t"..getstr(mtx[i][1])
for j = 2,#mtx[1] do
str = str.." & "..getstr(mtx[i][j])
end
-- close line
if i == #mtx then
str = str.."\n"
else
str = str.." \\\\\n"
end
end
return str.."\\end{array} \\right)$"
end
--// Functions not changing the matrix
--// matrix.rows ( mtx )
-- return number of rows
function matrix.rows( mtx )
return #mtx
end
--// matrix.columns ( mtx )
-- return number of columns
function matrix.columns( mtx )
return #mtx[1]
end
--// matrix.size ( mtx )
-- get matrix size as string rows,columns
function matrix.size( mtx )
if matrix.type( mtx ) == "tensor" then
return #mtx,#mtx[1],#mtx[1][1]
end
return #mtx,#mtx[1]
end
--// matrix.getelement ( mtx, i, j )
-- return specific element ( row,column )
-- returns element on success and nil on failure
function matrix.getelement( mtx,i,j )
if mtx[i] and mtx[i][j] then
return mtx[i][j]
end
end
--// matrix.setelement( mtx, i, j, value )
-- set an element ( i, j, value )
-- returns 1 on success and nil on failure
function matrix.setelement( mtx,i,j,value )
if matrix.getelement( mtx,i,j ) then
-- check if value type is number
mtx[i][j] = value
return 1
end
end
--// matrix.ipairs ( mtx )
-- iteration, same for complex
function matrix.ipairs( mtx )
local i,j,rows,columns = 1,0,#mtx,#mtx[1]
local function iter()
j = j + 1
if j > columns then -- return first element from next row
i,j = i + 1,1
end
if i <= rows then
return i,j
end
end
return iter
end
--///////////////////////////////
--// matrix 'vector' functions //
--///////////////////////////////
-- a vector is defined as a 3x1 matrix
-- get a vector; vec = matrix{{ 1,2,3 }}^'T'
--// matrix.scalar ( m1, m2 )
-- returns the Scalar Product of two 3x1 matrices (vectors)
function matrix.scalar( m1, m2 )
return m1[1][1]*m2[1][1] + m1[2][1]*m2[2][1] + m1[3][1]*m2[3][1]
end
--// matrix.cross ( m1, m2 )
-- returns the Cross Product of two 3x1 matrices (vectors)
function matrix.cross( m1, m2 )
local mtx = {}
mtx[1] = { m1[2][1]*m2[3][1] - m1[3][1]*m2[2][1] }
mtx[2] = { m1[3][1]*m2[1][1] - m1[1][1]*m2[3][1] }
mtx[3] = { m1[1][1]*m2[2][1] - m1[2][1]*m2[1][1] }
return setmetatable( mtx, matrix_meta )
end
--// matrix.len ( m1 )
-- returns the Length of a 3x1 matrix (vector)
function matrix.len( m1 )
return math.sqrt( m1[1][1]^2 + m1[2][1]^2 + m1[3][1]^2 )
end
--// matrix.replace (mtx, func, ...)
-- for each element e in the matrix mtx, replace it with func(mtx, ...).
function matrix.replace( m1, func, ... )
local mtx = {}
for i = 1,#m1 do
local m1i = m1[i]
local mtxi = {}
for j = 1,#m1i do
mtxi[j] = func( m1i[j], ... )
end
mtx[i] = mtxi
end
return setmetatable( mtx, matrix_meta )
end
--// matrix.remcomplex ( mtx )
-- set the matrix elements to strings
-- IMPROVE: tostring v.s. tostringelements confusing
function matrix.elementstostrings( mtx )
local e = mtx[1][1]
local tostring = type(e) == "table" and e.tostring or tostring
return matrix.replace(mtx, tostring)
end
--// matrix.solve ( m1 )
-- solve; tries to solve a symbolic matrix to a number
function matrix.solve( m1 )
assert( matrix.type( m1 ) == "symbol", "matrix not of type 'symbol'" )
local mtx = {}
for i = 1,#m1 do
mtx[i] = {}
for j = 1,#m1[1] do
mtx[i][j] = tonumber( loadstring( "return "..m1[i][j][1] )() )
end
end
return setmetatable( mtx, matrix_meta )
end
--////////////////////////--
--// METATABLE HANDLING //--
--////////////////////////--
--// MetaTable
-- as we declaired on top of the page
-- local/shared metatable
-- matrix_meta
-- note '...' is always faster than 'arg1,arg2,...' if it can be used
-- Set add "+" behaviour
matrix_meta.__add = function( ... )
return matrix.add( ... )
end
-- Set subtract "-" behaviour
matrix_meta.__sub = function( ... )
return matrix.sub( ... )
end
-- Set multiply "*" behaviour
matrix_meta.__mul = function( m1,m2 )
if getmetatable( m1 ) ~= matrix_meta then
return matrix.mulnum( m2,m1 )
elseif getmetatable( m2 ) ~= matrix_meta then
return matrix.mulnum( m1,m2 )
end
return matrix.mul( m1,m2 )
end
-- Set division "/" behaviour
matrix_meta.__div = function( m1,m2 )
if getmetatable( m1 ) ~= matrix_meta then
return matrix.mulnum( matrix.invert(m2),m1 )
elseif getmetatable( m2 ) ~= matrix_meta then
return matrix.divnum( m1,m2 )
end
return matrix.div( m1,m2 )
end
-- Set unary minus "-" behavior
matrix_meta.__unm = function( mtx )
return matrix.mulnum( mtx,-1 )
end
-- Set power "^" behaviour
-- if opt is any integer number will do mtx^opt
-- (returning nil if answer doesn't exist)
-- if opt is 'T' then it will return the transpose matrix
-- only for complex:
-- if opt is '*' then it returns the complex conjugate matrix
local option = {
-- only for complex
["*"] = function( m1 ) return matrix.conjugate( m1 ) end,
-- for both
["T"] = function( m1 ) return matrix.transpose( m1 ) end,
}
matrix_meta.__pow = function( m1, opt )
return option[opt] and option[opt]( m1 ) or matrix.pow( m1,opt )
end
-- Set equal "==" behaviour
matrix_meta.__eq = function( m1, m2 )
-- check same type
if matrix.type( m1 ) ~= matrix.type( m2 ) then
return false
end
-- check same size
if #m1 ~= #m2 or #m1[1] ~= #m2[1] then
return false
end
-- check elements equal
for i = 1,#m1 do
for j = 1,#m1[1] do
if m1[i][j] ~= m2[i][j] then
return false
end
end
end
return true
end
-- Set tostring "tostring( mtx )" behaviour
matrix_meta.__tostring = function( ... )
return matrix.tostring( ... )
end
-- set __call "mtx( [formatstr] )" behaviour, mtx [, formatstr]
matrix_meta.__call = function( ... )
matrix.print( ... )
end
--// __index handling
matrix_meta.__index = {}
for k,v in pairs( matrix ) do
matrix_meta.__index[k] = v
end
--/////////////////////////////////
--// symbol class implementation
--/////////////////////////////////
-- access to the symbolic metatable
local symbol_meta = {}; symbol_meta.__index = symbol_meta
local symbol = symbol_meta
function symbol_meta.new(o)
return setmetatable({tostring(o)}, symbol_meta)
end
symbol_meta.to = symbol_meta.new
-- symbol( arg )
-- same as symbol.to( arg )
-- set __call behaviour of symbol
setmetatable( symbol_meta, { __call = function( _,s ) return symbol_meta.to( s ) end } )
-- Converts object to string, optionally with formatting.
function symbol_meta.tostring( e,fstr )
return string.format( fstr,e[1] )
end
-- Returns "symbol" if object is a symbol type, else nothing.
function symbol_meta:type()
if getmetatable(self) == symbol_meta then
return "symbol"
end
end
-- Performs string.gsub on symbol.
-- for use in matrix.replace
function symbol_meta:gsub(from, to)
return symbol.to( string.gsub( self[1],from,to ) )
end
-- creates function that replaces one letter by something else
-- makereplacer( "a",4,"b",7, ... )(x)
-- will replace a with 4 and b with 7 in symbol x.
-- for use in matrix.replace
function symbol_meta.makereplacer( ... )
local tosub = {}
local args = {...}
for i = 1,#args,2 do
tosub[args[i]] = args[i+1]
end
local function func( a ) return tosub[a] or a end
return function(sym)
return symbol.to( string.gsub( sym[1], "%a", func ) )
end
end
-- applies abs function to symbol
function symbol_meta.abs(a)
return symbol.to("(" .. a[1] .. "):abs()")
end
-- applies sqrt function to symbol
function symbol_meta.sqrt(a)
return symbol.to("(" .. a[1] .. "):sqrt()")
end
function symbol_meta.__add(a,b)
return symbol.to(a .. "+" .. b)
end
function symbol_meta.__sub(a,b)
return symbol.to(a .. "-" .. b)
end
function symbol_meta.__mul(a,b)
return symbol.to("(" .. a .. ")*(" .. b .. ")")
end
function symbol_meta.__div(a,b)
return symbol.to("(" .. a .. ")/(" .. b .. ")")
end
function symbol_meta.__pow(a,b)
return symbol.to("(" .. a .. ")^(" .. b .. ")")
end
function symbol_meta.__eq(a,b)
return a[1] == b[1]
end
function symbol_meta.__tostring(a)
return a[1]
end
function symbol_meta.__concat(a,b)
return tostring(a) .. tostring(b)
end
matrix.symbol = symbol
-- return matrix
return matrix
--///////////////--
--// chillcode //--
--///////////////--